LAND OF LIQUID: Have You Been to the Corn Palace?

So if you were driving through a town and saw this sign, would you turn and go see what it was?  Of course you would.  Even if you weren’t in agriculture, you have to see a Corn Palace.

 So this is in Mitchell, SD, about an hour West of Sioux Falls.  I had some research plots near there and was in town anyway….so it would just be rude not to go.  I had been there before, but years earlier.  It seems that there has been a Corn Palace since 1892.  Each year there is a different theme and this building is completely decorated in corn to fit the theme.  The decoration is done in the fall.  This year the theme is “Rock of Ages”.

Here is one side of the palace.  There appears to be some construction happening.  But there is Elvis and some other rock depictions.

See, it really is corn.  Good thing for different colored corn.  It would be pretty difficult if only using yellow corn.  Amazing.  There is no doubt who it is.

 And here’s everyone’s favorite Rocker: Willie Nelson.  Well they must have taken some liberties.  Maybe the corn artist is a big fan.  But again, no doubt who it is.  Maybe they were out of Ringo Starr corn.

 Even on the inside there are corn pictures, like here in the arena.  There was some sort of sale going on.  I was in a hurry so didn’t go down.  But all of the scenes around the ceiling are made from corn. They don’t know when to stop.

 So of course I bought a post card at the gift shop.  Here is what is looked like last fall when completed.  They were able to clear the street of cars, which I couldn’t do.  But it looks nice and new there.

This was on Friday morning, and there were lot’s of tourists there.  Including buses.  Everyone likes corn.  Now if they only knew what a struggle it is to produce it in a hot and dry year like this.  But I’m pumped.  Can’t wait to see what the next theme is.  Hopefully a high-efficiency fertilizer theme.  I’d look good in corn.

Summary of Fertilizer Placement Options for Corn

Experiment Info

305/309/512/719
Planted: 5/14,19,16,25
Variety: DKC46-07
DKC53-78
DKC46-07
DKC48-12
Population: 38,000
36,000
38,000
31,000
Row Spacing: 30″
Previous Crop: Corn/Soys/Soys/Soys
Plot Size: 15’x210’/180’/240’/210’
Replications: 1/5/1/4
Harvested: 10/22,26,29

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 7.2/7.3/6.9/3.8
CEC: 7.2/6.5/10.6/12.3
% OM: 1.5/1.8/2.0/3.0
Bray P1: 26/26/34/20
K: 136/76/60/121
S: 21/11/8/16
% K: 4.8/3.0/1.5/2.5
% Mg: 18.4/16.4/20/21.7
% Ca: 15.8/79.6/77.2/75.5
% H: 0
% Na: 1.0/1.0/0.9/0.3
Zn: 0.8/1.0/1.4/0.3
Mn: 5/4/7/2
B: 0.5/0.6/0.7/0.6
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Objective:

To determine yield response for fertilizer placed either 2×2 or in-furrow during corn planting.

The table below summarizes four locations across the North Central Research Station were Pro-Germinator, Sure-K and Micro 500 were applied either in-furrow or 2×2 at planting. Within each experiment the fertilizer applications were the same and applied according to soil test recommendations and all treatments were sidedressed with the same rate of nitrogen. Nitrogen only applications were done to show the benefits of planter time fertilizer. Experiment and average overall yield appear on the table below.

Summary of Fertilizer Placement Options for CornConclusions:

  • At all four locations, the nitrogen only treatment yielded lower than the other treatments. An average of over 11 bu/A was achieved with the addition a 2×2 planter applied fertilizer.
  • At half the locations, in-furrow applications yielded much higher than 2×2 fertilizers. In the other locations there was little difference between the two methods of application.
  • On average over all locations, planter fertilizer applied in-furrow yielded almost 5 bu/A higher than 2×2.
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“Permanent Plots”: Program Components in Corn

Experiment Info

Planted 4/25/12
Variety: DKC48-12
Population: 31,000
Row Spacing: 30″
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15’ x 210’
Replications 2
Fall BC 10/28
Spring BC 4/13,23
Sidedress 5/24/12
Harvested: 10/29/12

 

Soil Test Values (ppm)

 pH 7.0
CEC 12.4
%OM 3.4
Bicarb P 17
K 111
S 5
%K 2.3
%Mg 21.4
%Ca 75.9
%H 0
% Na 0.4
Zn 1.5
Mn 4
B 0.7
Yield Goal: 180 bu
Target Fertilizer Rate: 180-30-60-2Zn

Objective:

Evaluate the yield effects of the different AgroLiquid program components.

This experiment is intended to follow similar fertilizer programs over time in a corn-soybean rotation. Based on soil test, a corn fertilizer program of 180-30-60-2 Zn was implemented for a 200 bu/A yield goal. This is a very productive soil, where yields the past two seasons have exceeded expectations. As such, and based on previous results, the recommended 215 lb-N/A recommendation was reduced to 180 lb/A. Within this experiment there were program source comparisons. It should be mentioned that due to a fast and heavy rain event on May 7 that two of the replications of plots were damaged from water runoff and not harvested. However, the
remaining two replications were unscathed and provided good data.

In this part of the experiment, the yield of the total AgroLiquid planter program of 3 gal/A of Pro-Germinator + 5 gal/A of Sure-K + 2 qt/A of Micro 500 was compared to that of the Pro-Germinator or Sure-K alone (although still with Micro 500). These were all compared to a nitrogen only treatment. It is hoped that the highest yield is obtained with the whole program, but research will find out. Treatment yields appear in the following chart.

liquidfert

Conclusions:

  • The highest yield was obtained with the total program.
  • The single component treatment yields were closer to that of the total program than perhaps would be desired. But there was a numerical additive effect none-the-less.
  • The yields of the individual components still out-yielded that of either conventional complete program (see that report).

 

Nitrogen Source Comparison on Dryland Corn

Experiment Info

Planted: 4/25
Variety: DKC48-12
Population: 32,000
Row Spacing: 30″
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15′ x 210′
Replications: 4
Dry Broadcast: 4/23
Sidedress: 5/25
Harvested: 10/29

 

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 6.2
CEC: 8.2
% OM: 1.7
Bray P1: 32
K: 72
S: 14
% K: 2.3
% Mg: 19.9
% Ca: 64.9
% H: 12.1
% Na: 0.8
Zn: 1.2
Mn: 1.0
B: 0.8
Yield Goal: 180 bu/A
Target
Fertilizer Rate:
175-49-49

Objective:

Comparison of five nitrogen sources and combinations applied at the recommended rates to provide 175 lbs nitrogen per acre (or equivalent based on product).

In this experiment five nitrogen sources were evaluated, three programs containing Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizers products: High NRG-N, N Combo (a combination of High NRG-N and 28% + eNhance) and 28% + eNhance and two conventional products: 28% UAN and urea. Recommended rates of each product were applied to provide 175 pounds of nitrogen per acre. An additional treatment of 28% at an equal gallon rate to the recommended rate of 28% + eNhance (47 gal/A). The urea application was applied preplant incorporated and the nitrogen solutions were applied sidedress at 30 days after planting. Yields appear on the chart below.

Nitrogen Source Comparison on Dryland CornConclusions:

  • All nitrogen sources, at their recommended rates, reached the yield goal of 180 bu/A corn.
  • Highest yield was obtained with 28% + eNhance applied at 80% of target N rate. This yield was similar to that obtained with 28% at the full 175 lb/A rate.
  • The N Combo yielded between High NRG-N and 28% + eNhance.
  • A 20% rate reduction in the application of 28% (from 58 gal/A to 47 gal/A) caused a 7 bu/A yield reduction. But this same rate of 28% with eNhance had a 7.2 bu/A yield increase. This shows the increase in efficiency and usability of nitrogen.

Nitrogen Source and Method of Application Comparison in Corn

Experiment Info

Planted: 4/25
Variety: DKC48-12
Population: 31,000
Row Spacing: 30″
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15′ x 530′
Replications: 3
Broadcast: 4/26
Sidedress: 4/25
Harvested: 10/29

 

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 6.1
CEC: 10.8
% OM: 2.4
Bray P1: 24
K: 128
S: 10
% K: 3.0
% Mg: 18.5
% Ca: 63.7
% H: 14.4
% Na: 0.4
Zn: 0.9
Mn: 9
B: 0.4
Yield Goal: 180
Target
Fertilizer Rate:
175-22-29

Objective:

To compare different nitrogen sources and application methods for corn.

There are many options for nitrogen placement when it comes to fertilizing a corn crop. In this experiment two nitrogen sources were used: High NRG-N and 28% + eNhance. Methods of application included: PRE emergence broadcast treatment, sidedress application 30 days after planting and a split application where 15 gallons per acre was applied 2×2 at planting with the remainder at sidedress. An additional treatment of 28% UAN applied PRE broadcast and was tested as a standard comparison. Yields appear on the chart below.

Nitrogen Source and Method of Application Comparison in CornConclusions:

  • There was no significant difference in yield amongst methods of application for both of the nitrogen sources. Numerically, the sidedress applications yielded slightly higher than either the broadcast or split applications.
  • At broadcast, 28% yielded slightly higher than High NRG-N but there was no significant difference between it and 28% + eNhance.
  • The sidedress treatments showed no statistically significant difference in yield between the two nitrogen sources.
  • There was no difference in nitrogen sources with the split applications. However, by using High NRG-N at plating and sidedressing with 28% UAN there was a yield increase. This warrants further testing in the future as there may be advantages to using two products with different nitrogen-release curves.

Nitrogen Rate Comparison in Corn

Experiment Info

12-701, 718
Planted: 4/24, 4/25
Variety: DKC53-78, DKC48-12
Population: 31,000
Row Spacing: 30″
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15′ x 265′, 210′
Replications: 4
Dry Broadcast: 4/23
Sidedress: 5/24, 5/25
Harvested: 10/29

 

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 6.1, 6.2
CEC: 12.3, 802
% OM: 3.3, 1.7
Bray P1: 20, 32
K: 203, 72
S: 9, 14
% K: 4.2, 2.3
% Mg: 13.7, 19.9
% Ca: 67.4, 64.9
% H: 14.1, 12.1
% Na: 0.6, 0.8
Zn: 2.0, 1.2
Mn: 14, 1
B: 0.5, 0.8
Yield Goal: 170 bu/A
Target
Fertilizer Rate:
175-49-49

Objective:

To compare the effects of five nitrogen sources on dryland corn yield at two locations.

Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizers has many options available for sidedress nitrogen applications on corn. In this experiment, High NRG-N was compared to two UAN supplements: S-Calate and eNhance. A fourth treatment of 28% UAN was added as a standard comparison. All treatments were applied sidedress, 30 days after planting to 6-inch corn. Yields for two locations comparing the same treatments appear on the chart below.

Nitrogen Rate Comparison in CornConclusions:

  • There is a similar trend in differences between fertilizer sources at both locations.
  • All nitrogen sources exceeded the yield goal of 170 bu/A.
  • 28% + eNhance yielded similar to 28% even though the application rate was 11 gal/A less.
  • The addition of 6 gal/A of S-Calate to 52 gal/A of 28% UAN did not yield as well as the full 58 gal/A rate of 28% UAN alone. More testing will be done to determine the proper rate structure for this new product.

Pro-Germinator is KING

Experiment Info

309 / 702 / 704
Planted: 4/19, 24, 19
Variety: DKC53-75
Population: 36,000
31,000
31,000
Row Spacing: 30″
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15×18’/210’/130’ 15’ x 265’, 15’x265’
Replications: 5, 4, 2
Sidedress: 5/23
Harvested: 10/22,26 11/5

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 7.3, 6.1, 6.2
CEC: 6.5, 12.3, 12.4
% OM: 1.8, 3.5, 2.7
P1: 26, 20, 16
K: 76, 203, 151
S: 11, 9, 8
% K: 3.0, 4.2, 3.1
% Mg: 16.4, 13.7, 16.2
% Ca: 79.6, 67.4, 68.4
% H: 0, 14.1, 12.0
% Na: 1.0, 0.6, 0.3
Zn: 1.0, 2.0, 2.3
Mn: 4, 14, 8
B: 0.6, 0.5, 0.5

Objective:

Comparison of different sources of planter time fertilizer to Pro-Germinator for yield effect on corn.

Each season the NCRS gets questions on how various other phosphorus containing planter time fertilizers compare to Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizers Pro-Germinator. In most experiments at the NCRS a conventional fertilizer source is included for comparison. The data below shows three different experiments comparing Pro-Germinator to a conventional product. In each of these experiments a different outside source of phosphorus fertilizer was used. The three products compared to Pro-Germinator were: 10-34-0, Season Pass (6-18-6 w/S and Zn) and Black Label (6-20-0 w/Zn). Fertilizer rates, placement (in-furrow or 2×2) and yield results appear on the chart below.

Pro-Germinator is KINGConclusions:

  • All fertilizer sources significantly increased corn yield over the no planter fertilizer treatments.
  • Pro-Germinator yielded significantly higher than both Season Pass and Black Label. (Note: Season Pass was applied at manufacture suggested rate of 4 gal/A).
  • There was no difference in yield between programs of Pro-Germinator and 10-34-0. Potassium as Sure-K can be applied along with the Pro-Germinator, while muriate of potash is a separate application with 10-34-0.
  • As shown in past years of research, Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizers’ Pro-Germinator yields similar to and often out performs other sources of phosphorus planter fertilizer.

Corn planter fertilizer placement

Experiment Info

Planted: 5/9/2011
Variety: Pioneer 9807
Population: 36,000
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15′ x 115′
Replications: 4
Sidedress: 6/8/2011
Harvested: 10/25/2011

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 7.0
CEC: 7.5
% OM: 1.6
Bicarb: 18
K: 71
S: 6
% K: 2.4
% Mg: 24.8
% Ca: 71.8
% H: 0
% Na: 1.0
Zn: 1.5
Mn: 8
B: 0.6

Objective:

Compare different placements of Liquid fertilizer (3 gal/A Pro-Germinator + 7 gal/A Sure-K + 2 qt/A Micro 500) for effects on corn yield.

There are various placement options for liquid fertilizers such as (1) 2×2 placement and in-furrow placement. In-furrow also presents some options, such as on a (2) seed fi rmer/cover with the fertilizer tube split into a Y at the end (3) an in-furrow tube that places the fertilizer in the bottom of the furrow prior to seed drop. An issue that can arise in wet spring conditions like this year is that some growers get concerned about just fi nishing planting before more rain occurs and don’t bother putting on any planter fertilizer. Then after emergence they become concerned about lack of fertilizer and wonder if they should put some on at sidedress (4), or just do nothing (5). An experiment was conducted to evaluate these five different placement options. (Note: sidedress fertilizer for all was 21 gal/A High NRG-N + 28 gal/A 28% + eNhance.) Pictures of fertilizer placement and average placement yield appear in the following picture.

 

Corn Planter Fertilizer PlacementConclusions:

  • All fertilizer applications resulted in a yield increase over no P and K fertilizer.
  • The highest yield was with the tube and the seed firmer.
  • The application with sidedress was lower than the planter-time applications, but was much better than forgoing application due to it being 30 days after planting.
Some of the planter-applied treatments from 2011 were also applied in a similar experiment in 2010 (10-710a). The two-year average would suggest an advantage for the tube in-furrow placement. But both the tube and the seed firmer resulted in a better overall yield than that of the 2x2 placement, likely due to the earlier access to the row-placed crop nutrition.
Some of the planter-applied treatments from 2011 were also applied in a similar experiment in 2010 (10-710a). The two-year average would suggest an advantage for the tube in-furrow placement. But both the tube and the seed firmer resulted in a better overall yield than that of the 2×2 placement, likely due to the earlier access to the row-placed crop nutrition.

Split Nitrogen Applications on Corn

Experiment Info

Planted 5/10/2011
Variety DeKalb 53-78
Population 32,000
Previous Crop corn
Plot Size 15′ x 210′
Replications 4
N Broadcast 5/13/2011
Sidedress 6/15/2011
Drop Nozzle 6/30/2011
Harvested 10/31/2011

 

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH 7.4
CEC 13.8
%OM 2.7
Bicarb 12
K 113
S 7
%K 2.1
%Mg 24.0
%Ca 73.7
%H 0
%Na 0.2
Zn 1.0
Mn 2
B 0.7

Objective:

Evaluate single vs. split applications of 28% UAN + eNhance for effect on corn yield.

Previous testing at the NCRS with application timing of nitrogen on corn has surprisingly shown similar yields regardless of method of application. However such testing was with High NRG-N and has not been thoroughly tested with 28% UAN + eNhance. (Recall that eNhance is added to 28% UAN at a rate of 2 gallons per ton.) This experiment compared fi ve different application timings for 45 gal/A of 28% + eNhance to corn following corn: 1) all Broadcast Pre-emergence (after planting); 2) all Sidedress; 3) 15 gal/A 2×2 (with planter) and 30 gal/A Pre-emergence; 4) 15 gal/A 2×2; 15 gal/A Pre-emergence; 15 gal/A Sidedress; and 5) 15 gal/A 2×2; 10 gal/A Pre-emergence; 15 gal/A Sidedress; 5 gal/A through Drop nozzles. A comparison treatment of 55 gal/A 28% UAN applied Pre-emergence was also applied. Yield results appear in the following chart.

Split Nitrogen Applications on CornConclusions:

  • These results were somewhat unexpected as it shows that single applications are better than multiple applications.
  • This was corn after corn and there was residue, but the N did not get tied up from the single surface application. However, the 45 gal/A of 28% with eNhance did out yield the 55 gal/A rate of 28% without it.
  • Despite the apparent yield differences, the yields were not statistically different at the (0.1) level, which does confirm earlier findings that different methods of application result in similar yield.

Foliar Applications on Corn

Experiment Info

Planted 5/10/2011
Variety DeKalb 53-78
Population 32,000
Previous Crop corn
Plot Size 15′ x 210′
Replications 4
Sidedress 6/15/2011
Foliar (V7) 6/17/2011
Harvested 11/2/2011

 

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH 7.4
CEC 13.8
%OM 2.7
Bicarb 12
K 113
S 7
%K 2.1
%Mg 24.0
%Ca 73.7
%H 0
%Na 0.2
Zn 1.0
Mn 2
B 0.7

Objective:

Evaluate foliar applications of ferti-Rain and accesS + NResponse on corn in the V7 growth stage for effect on yield.

Foliar applications on crops such as soybeans have been proven to be effective in most cases. But this may be because foliar only applications on soybeans have been effective in the absence of soil-applied fertilizer. Foliar applications have not been shown to replace applications of fertilizer to the soil. But research continues to fi nd foliar treatments that can be effective additives to soil fertilizer programs. Success in this quest has been inconsistent. None the less, this year we applied some reduced rates of ferti-Rain (1 and 2 gal/A) and a new treatment, 1 gal/A each of accesS and NResponse. All foliars were applied in a total spray volume of 10 gal/A.

Foliar Applications on CornConclusions:

  • In spite of the damage to the sprayed leaves, the only treatment to result in a yield increase was the one with NResponse + accesS. We should have taken tissue samples to see what plant nutrients were affected.
  • The above treatment had no effect on subsequent growth, just on the sprayed leaves. NResponse has been sprayed on corn with no damage for years, but this is the first time to make foliar applications with the accesS, which must be the culprit for burn here. Perhaps next year we will apply accesS alone. It is unlikely that growers will accept such damage. But we will investigate further.
  • The ferti-Rain did not have an effect on yield, which has been our experience with well-fertilized corn.