Kentucky Corn Looking Great with AgroLiquid

So last week, Senior Sales Manager Galynn, SAM Rob and I went down to Hopkinsville, KY to visit the Security Seed & Chemical Research Farm.  It is a large facility where fertilizer plots are established each year to test different program, both old and new.  Fertilizer Agronomist Lang French met us at the plots to show us around.  AgroLiquid has been a standard program there for quite a few years now.  But that is challenged each year.  They do have really good looking corn down there.

inspecting corn

 The corn is in the silking stage now.  Here is a plot that received a preplant application of dry fertilizer (9-23-30).

corn in silking stage

 And right next to it is a plot that instead received a planter application of Pro-Germinator + Micro 500.  Notice that the silks are turning brown indicating that it is farther along in maturity.

corn silk turning brown

Lang said that they often see tassel emergence at least seven days earlier with AgroLiquid compared to dry treatments.  One of the many features explaining the high performance of AgroLiquid.  Go to their upcoming field day if you are in the neighborhood.

And if you want to see a video discussion of these plots (and who doesn’t?) go to @DrJerryCropDoc on Facebook.

Fast-Growing Corn (LAND OF LIQUID Blog)

So how fast does corn grow anyway?  I recently read an article in a Pioneer update that told about spraying a stalk with paint and then checking it the next day.  I shared this my friend Chris Cook who farms in SE Wyoming and thought it would be a good project for his young boys Brady and Matt.

how fast does corn grow?

And it was!  I got this pic right back from them showing the amount of growth overnight.  Pretty phenomenal.  Of course this corn had the advantage of using AgroLiquid.  But I’m pretty sure corn with other fertilizer would grow at least some in the same test.  Maybe.

Summary of Fertilizer Placement Options for Corn

Experiment Info

305/309/512/719
Planted: 5/14,19,16,25
Variety: DKC46-07
DKC53-78
DKC46-07
DKC48-12
Population: 38,000
36,000
38,000
31,000
Row Spacing: 30″
Previous Crop: Corn/Soys/Soys/Soys
Plot Size: 15’x210’/180’/240’/210’
Replications: 1/5/1/4
Harvested: 10/22,26,29

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 7.2/7.3/6.9/3.8
CEC: 7.2/6.5/10.6/12.3
% OM: 1.5/1.8/2.0/3.0
Bray P1: 26/26/34/20
K: 136/76/60/121
S: 21/11/8/16
% K: 4.8/3.0/1.5/2.5
% Mg: 18.4/16.4/20/21.7
% Ca: 15.8/79.6/77.2/75.5
% H: 0
% Na: 1.0/1.0/0.9/0.3
Zn: 0.8/1.0/1.4/0.3
Mn: 5/4/7/2
B: 0.5/0.6/0.7/0.6
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Objective:

To determine yield response for fertilizer placed either 2×2 or in-furrow during corn planting.

The table below summarizes four locations across the North Central Research Station were Pro-Germinator, Sure-K and Micro 500 were applied either in-furrow or 2×2 at planting. Within each experiment the fertilizer applications were the same and applied according to soil test recommendations and all treatments were sidedressed with the same rate of nitrogen. Nitrogen only applications were done to show the benefits of planter time fertilizer. Experiment and average overall yield appear on the table below.

Summary of Fertilizer Placement Options for CornConclusions:

  • At all four locations, the nitrogen only treatment yielded lower than the other treatments. An average of over 11 bu/A was achieved with the addition a 2×2 planter applied fertilizer.
  • At half the locations, in-furrow applications yielded much higher than 2×2 fertilizers. In the other locations there was little difference between the two methods of application.
  • On average over all locations, planter fertilizer applied in-furrow yielded almost 5 bu/A higher than 2×2.
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“Permanent Plots”: Program Components in Corn

Experiment Info

Planted 4/25/12
Variety: DKC48-12
Population: 31,000
Row Spacing: 30″
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15’ x 210’
Replications 2
Fall BC 10/28
Spring BC 4/13,23
Sidedress 5/24/12
Harvested: 10/29/12

 

Soil Test Values (ppm)

 pH 7.0
CEC 12.4
%OM 3.4
Bicarb P 17
K 111
S 5
%K 2.3
%Mg 21.4
%Ca 75.9
%H 0
% Na 0.4
Zn 1.5
Mn 4
B 0.7
Yield Goal: 180 bu
Target Fertilizer Rate: 180-30-60-2Zn

Objective:

Evaluate the yield effects of the different AgroLiquid program components.

This experiment is intended to follow similar fertilizer programs over time in a corn-soybean rotation. Based on soil test, a corn fertilizer program of 180-30-60-2 Zn was implemented for a 200 bu/A yield goal. This is a very productive soil, where yields the past two seasons have exceeded expectations. As such, and based on previous results, the recommended 215 lb-N/A recommendation was reduced to 180 lb/A. Within this experiment there were program source comparisons. It should be mentioned that due to a fast and heavy rain event on May 7 that two of the replications of plots were damaged from water runoff and not harvested. However, the
remaining two replications were unscathed and provided good data.

In this part of the experiment, the yield of the total AgroLiquid planter program of 3 gal/A of Pro-Germinator + 5 gal/A of Sure-K + 2 qt/A of Micro 500 was compared to that of the Pro-Germinator or Sure-K alone (although still with Micro 500). These were all compared to a nitrogen only treatment. It is hoped that the highest yield is obtained with the whole program, but research will find out. Treatment yields appear in the following chart.

liquidfert

Conclusions:

  • The highest yield was obtained with the total program.
  • The single component treatment yields were closer to that of the total program than perhaps would be desired. But there was a numerical additive effect none-the-less.
  • The yields of the individual components still out-yielded that of either conventional complete program (see that report).

 

Nitrogen Source and Method of Application Comparison in Corn

Experiment Info

Planted: 4/25
Variety: DKC48-12
Population: 31,000
Row Spacing: 30″
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15′ x 530′
Replications: 3
Broadcast: 4/26
Sidedress: 4/25
Harvested: 10/29

 

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 6.1
CEC: 10.8
% OM: 2.4
Bray P1: 24
K: 128
S: 10
% K: 3.0
% Mg: 18.5
% Ca: 63.7
% H: 14.4
% Na: 0.4
Zn: 0.9
Mn: 9
B: 0.4
Yield Goal: 180
Target
Fertilizer Rate:
175-22-29

Objective:

To compare different nitrogen sources and application methods for corn.

There are many options for nitrogen placement when it comes to fertilizing a corn crop. In this experiment two nitrogen sources were used: High NRG-N and 28% + eNhance. Methods of application included: PRE emergence broadcast treatment, sidedress application 30 days after planting and a split application where 15 gallons per acre was applied 2×2 at planting with the remainder at sidedress. An additional treatment of 28% UAN applied PRE broadcast and was tested as a standard comparison. Yields appear on the chart below.

Nitrogen Source and Method of Application Comparison in CornConclusions:

  • There was no significant difference in yield amongst methods of application for both of the nitrogen sources. Numerically, the sidedress applications yielded slightly higher than either the broadcast or split applications.
  • At broadcast, 28% yielded slightly higher than High NRG-N but there was no significant difference between it and 28% + eNhance.
  • The sidedress treatments showed no statistically significant difference in yield between the two nitrogen sources.
  • There was no difference in nitrogen sources with the split applications. However, by using High NRG-N at plating and sidedressing with 28% UAN there was a yield increase. This warrants further testing in the future as there may be advantages to using two products with different nitrogen-release curves.

Corn planter fertilizer placement

Experiment Info

Planted: 5/9/2011
Variety: Pioneer 9807
Population: 36,000
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15′ x 115′
Replications: 4
Sidedress: 6/8/2011
Harvested: 10/25/2011

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 7.0
CEC: 7.5
% OM: 1.6
Bicarb: 18
K: 71
S: 6
% K: 2.4
% Mg: 24.8
% Ca: 71.8
% H: 0
% Na: 1.0
Zn: 1.5
Mn: 8
B: 0.6

Objective:

Compare different placements of Liquid fertilizer (3 gal/A Pro-Germinator + 7 gal/A Sure-K + 2 qt/A Micro 500) for effects on corn yield.

There are various placement options for liquid fertilizers such as (1) 2×2 placement and in-furrow placement. In-furrow also presents some options, such as on a (2) seed fi rmer/cover with the fertilizer tube split into a Y at the end (3) an in-furrow tube that places the fertilizer in the bottom of the furrow prior to seed drop. An issue that can arise in wet spring conditions like this year is that some growers get concerned about just fi nishing planting before more rain occurs and don’t bother putting on any planter fertilizer. Then after emergence they become concerned about lack of fertilizer and wonder if they should put some on at sidedress (4), or just do nothing (5). An experiment was conducted to evaluate these five different placement options. (Note: sidedress fertilizer for all was 21 gal/A High NRG-N + 28 gal/A 28% + eNhance.) Pictures of fertilizer placement and average placement yield appear in the following picture.

 

Corn Planter Fertilizer PlacementConclusions:

  • All fertilizer applications resulted in a yield increase over no P and K fertilizer.
  • The highest yield was with the tube and the seed firmer.
  • The application with sidedress was lower than the planter-time applications, but was much better than forgoing application due to it being 30 days after planting.
Some of the planter-applied treatments from 2011 were also applied in a similar experiment in 2010 (10-710a). The two-year average would suggest an advantage for the tube in-furrow placement. But both the tube and the seed firmer resulted in a better overall yield than that of the 2x2 placement, likely due to the earlier access to the row-placed crop nutrition.
Some of the planter-applied treatments from 2011 were also applied in a similar experiment in 2010 (10-710a). The two-year average would suggest an advantage for the tube in-furrow placement. But both the tube and the seed firmer resulted in a better overall yield than that of the 2×2 placement, likely due to the earlier access to the row-placed crop nutrition.

Split Nitrogen Applications on Corn

Experiment Info

Planted 5/10/2011
Variety DeKalb 53-78
Population 32,000
Previous Crop corn
Plot Size 15′ x 210′
Replications 4
N Broadcast 5/13/2011
Sidedress 6/15/2011
Drop Nozzle 6/30/2011
Harvested 10/31/2011

 

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH 7.4
CEC 13.8
%OM 2.7
Bicarb 12
K 113
S 7
%K 2.1
%Mg 24.0
%Ca 73.7
%H 0
%Na 0.2
Zn 1.0
Mn 2
B 0.7

Objective:

Evaluate single vs. split applications of 28% UAN + eNhance for effect on corn yield.

Previous testing at the NCRS with application timing of nitrogen on corn has surprisingly shown similar yields regardless of method of application. However such testing was with High NRG-N and has not been thoroughly tested with 28% UAN + eNhance. (Recall that eNhance is added to 28% UAN at a rate of 2 gallons per ton.) This experiment compared fi ve different application timings for 45 gal/A of 28% + eNhance to corn following corn: 1) all Broadcast Pre-emergence (after planting); 2) all Sidedress; 3) 15 gal/A 2×2 (with planter) and 30 gal/A Pre-emergence; 4) 15 gal/A 2×2; 15 gal/A Pre-emergence; 15 gal/A Sidedress; and 5) 15 gal/A 2×2; 10 gal/A Pre-emergence; 15 gal/A Sidedress; 5 gal/A through Drop nozzles. A comparison treatment of 55 gal/A 28% UAN applied Pre-emergence was also applied. Yield results appear in the following chart.

Split Nitrogen Applications on CornConclusions:

  • These results were somewhat unexpected as it shows that single applications are better than multiple applications.
  • This was corn after corn and there was residue, but the N did not get tied up from the single surface application. However, the 45 gal/A of 28% with eNhance did out yield the 55 gal/A rate of 28% without it.
  • Despite the apparent yield differences, the yields were not statistically different at the (0.1) level, which does confirm earlier findings that different methods of application result in similar yield.

Foliar Applications on Corn

Experiment Info

Planted 5/10/2011
Variety DeKalb 53-78
Population 32,000
Previous Crop corn
Plot Size 15′ x 210′
Replications 4
Sidedress 6/15/2011
Foliar (V7) 6/17/2011
Harvested 11/2/2011

 

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH 7.4
CEC 13.8
%OM 2.7
Bicarb 12
K 113
S 7
%K 2.1
%Mg 24.0
%Ca 73.7
%H 0
%Na 0.2
Zn 1.0
Mn 2
B 0.7

Objective:

Evaluate foliar applications of ferti-Rain and accesS + NResponse on corn in the V7 growth stage for effect on yield.

Foliar applications on crops such as soybeans have been proven to be effective in most cases. But this may be because foliar only applications on soybeans have been effective in the absence of soil-applied fertilizer. Foliar applications have not been shown to replace applications of fertilizer to the soil. But research continues to fi nd foliar treatments that can be effective additives to soil fertilizer programs. Success in this quest has been inconsistent. None the less, this year we applied some reduced rates of ferti-Rain (1 and 2 gal/A) and a new treatment, 1 gal/A each of accesS and NResponse. All foliars were applied in a total spray volume of 10 gal/A.

Foliar Applications on CornConclusions:

  • In spite of the damage to the sprayed leaves, the only treatment to result in a yield increase was the one with NResponse + accesS. We should have taken tissue samples to see what plant nutrients were affected.
  • The above treatment had no effect on subsequent growth, just on the sprayed leaves. NResponse has been sprayed on corn with no damage for years, but this is the first time to make foliar applications with the accesS, which must be the culprit for burn here. Perhaps next year we will apply accesS alone. It is unlikely that growers will accept such damage. But we will investigate further.
  • The ferti-Rain did not have an effect on yield, which has been our experience with well-fertilized corn.

Sulfur Additions to Corn Fertilizer Programs

Experiment Info

Planted 6/1/2011
Variety DeKalb 46-07
Population 32,000
Previous Crop corn
Plot Size 15′ x 225′
Replications 4
Sidedress 6/14/2011
Harvested 11/2/2011

 

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH 7.1
CEC 16.5
%OM 4.7
Bicarb 11
K 132
S 8
%K 2.1
%Mg 20.1
%Ca 77.6
%H 0
%Na 0.2
Zn 1.4
Mn 2
B 0.6

Objective:

Determine the effects of three different ACLF sulfur fertilizers on yield of corn.

Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizers currently offers three different sulfur fertilizer formulations: microLink 6% Sulfur, eNhance (8.9% sulfur) and accesS (17% sulfur). The microLink Sulfur was primarily designed as a sulfur source for application with planter-time fertilizers. The eNhance was developed as a UAN fertilizer additive for the purpose of enhanced N activity. The accesS is a new product that can be applied as an additive with UAN, but more as a sulfur source. This experiment was conducted to compare these fertilizers as an in-furrow planter-time application, plus accesS as both in furrow and sidedress. (accesS is not currently recommended for in-furrow applications.) This corn was planted very late due to spring rains, but it did reach black layer.

Sulfur Additions to Corn Fertilizer ProgramsConclusions:

  • Highest yield was with the eNhance in-furrow applications. Next was microLink Sulfur and then accesS. This confi rms that accesS should not be applied in-furrow, even though we did not observe stand loss.
  • accesS at any of the applications did not produce corn yield as high as that with eNhance, even though in other experiments it was as good as or better than ATS as a sulfur source.
  • eNhance has been proven as a very good in-furrow sulfur additive for corn for several years at the NCRS.
  • It was interesting to note that even though the soil sulfur level was low (8 ppm), there was no rate effect as the yields with either 1 or 2 qt/A of any of the products were similar. These results and others like it make research a challenge.

In-Furrow Sulfur Options for Corn

Experiment Info

Planted  5/14/2014
Harvest  10/17/2014
Yield Goal  200 bu/A
Target Fert.  220-0-109
Variety  DKC 53-56 RIB
Population  38,000
Row Width 30″
Prev. Crop  Sugarbeets
Plot Size  15 x 290
Replications 4
Sidedress  6/10/2014

 

Soil Test Values (ppm)

 pH 7.2
CEC 8.5
%OM 1.8
Bray P1 34
Bicarb P 24
K 72
S 10
%K 2.2
%Mg 26.3
%Ca 70.2
%H 0
Zn 1.3
Mn 6
B 0.6

Objective:

To evaluate in-furrow sulfur fertilizer options for corn.

With the release of our newest product Kalibrate in early 2014, deciding which potassium source to use has been a common question. One difference between Sure-K and Kalibrate is the added 6% sulfur that is part of Kalibrate. When working with soils that are low in sulfur you have two options: use of Sure-K with eNhance or Kalibrate. Both programs will provide an adequate source of the required sulfur and potassium needed for a high yielding corn crop. This experiment compared 7 gal/A of Sure-K alone, 7 gal/A Sure-K + 2 qt/A eNhance and 7 gal/A Kalibrate, which contains 6% sulfur. All fertilizer programs also contained 3 gal/A Pro-Germinator and 2 qt/A Micro 500 applied in-furrow with tubes. All treatments were sidedressed with 52 gal/A High NRG-N. Yields appear on the chart below.

potassium and sulfur options for corn

Conclusions:

  • The addition of 2 qt of eNhance to an in-furrow application of Sure-K increased corn yield by nearly 3 bushels per
    acre.
  • Highest yield was achieved with an in-furrow application of Kalibrate, yielding 2.6 bushels per acre higher than
    the combination of Sure-K and eNhance.
  • In-furrow applications of eNhance are seed safe on corn up to 3 qt/A.