Research Field Days 2015

Nitrogen Placement Comparison in Corn South Dakota Ag Research. Lesterville, SD

Experiment Info aaaaaa

Planted: 6/11
Variety: DKC49-29
Population: 26,000
Row Spacing: 30”
Previous Crop: Corn
Plot Size: 4 rows x 10’
Replications: 4
Sidedress: 11/8
Harvested: 11/8

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 6.4
CEC: 16.8
% OM: 3.1
Bray P1: 10
K: 136
S: 13
% K: 2
% Mg: 27.3
% Ca: 63.4
% H: 7.3
Zn: 0.4
Mn: 15.6
B: 0.3

Objective

Compare placement of different nitrogen sources for effect on corn yield. Application of nitrogen to corn can be a challenge. What is the best method of application? Some growers apply all of their solution nitrogen as a single application after planting as in weed and feed. Side dress is a common application method, but there too are options: inject into the soil or apply in a surface band? An experiment was conducted in South Dakota to provide some answers to these placement options. The spring was very wet and planting was delayed. In fact, the intended location was never able to be planted, and a second location was selected. However, this was corn in 2012, and all nitrogen application at sidedress is not a good option for corn following corn due to N depletion in the soil and danger of further yield loss if sidedress is delayed by weather. But due to the drought in 2012, soil test determined that there was 51 lb of N available to the crop in the spring. An N application rate of 140 lb/A was set. Three UAN sources were selected for comparison: 46 gal/A of 28% UAN, 33 gal/A of High NRG-N and 28 gal/A of High NRG-N. Stream nozzles were selected due to the corn stalks and residue. Applications were broadcast with stream nozzles after planting, sidedress with soil injection, and sidedress with a narrow surface band. All plots received 4 gal/A of Pro-Germinator + 2 gal/A of Sure-K + 1 qt/A of Micro 500 applied in-furrow at planting. Ample rain fell following the broadcast application, and rain fell within a week of the sidedress application. Yield results appear in the chart.

Conclusions

• Yield patterns were similar for all three N sources. Highest yield was with the broadcast application followed closely by the sidedress (SD) injected treatment. Lowest was with the surface dribble band. Ample rain likely influenced results. Will see about a repeat.

Soybean Fertilizer Programs with Manure Applications (13-507)

Experiment Info13-507a

Planted: 5/17
Variety: Stine 22RC62
Population: 155,000
Row Spacing: 30”
Previous Crop: Corn
Plot Size: 15’x300’
Replications: 2
Sidedress: 6/6
Harvested: 10/15

Objective

To compare nutrient programs when used in combination with and without manure applications. The North Central Research Station has applied diary manure to areas of this particular field for 16 straight years. The crop for the previous 15 years has been continuous corn. The experiment is divided into 4 sections, 2 sections have no manure applied, 1 section receives a 20 ton/A application in the fall and the fourth section receives an application in the fall and spring for a 40 ton/A total. Fall applications are chisel plowed into the soil, while spring applications are applied to spring tilled soil and then tilled with a soil finisher for soil incorporation. Soil samples were taken again last fall to continually observe the changes in soil tests. This year soybeans were planted on half of the treatment areas to observe manure applications and soil test nutrient levels on this crop. Nutrients were applied according to soil test recommendations with the no manure section needing the higher rates of nutrients.

Conclusions:

• Both manure application timings had a significant yield advantage over no manure.

• Phosphorus applications are not needed for soybeans with manure applications.

• Maintain accurate soil tests and follow recommendations for supplemental nutrients.

• Manure applications reduce the need for additional nutrients.

Sure-K Application Timing in Corn (13-716)

Experiment Info13-716a

Planted: 5/3
Variety: DKC53-78
Population: 4
Row Spacing: 30”
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15’ x 210’
Replications: 4
PRE: 5/4
Sidedress: 6/15
Harvested: 10/3

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 7.6
CEC: 14.8
% OM: 3.7
Bicarb P: 5
K: 73
S: 7
% K: 1.3
% Mg: 21.7
% Ca: 76.8
%H: 0
% Na: 0.2
Zn: 0.8
Mn: 2
B: 0.5

Objective

To compare the application of Sure-K at a sidedress timing to a more standard planter in-furrow application. Can an application of potassium be made at sidedress? The treatments were planted on May 3rd. Wet weather delayed sidedress applications to June 15th, 42 days after planting. Normally we would prefer to have sidedress completed by 30 days after planting. However, cool weather also delayed corn growth. The corn was at growth stage V5 and 12” tall at the time of sidedress. A rate of 7 gal/A of Sure-K was added to the 45 gal/A of High NRG-N, which was being applied as the nitrogen source, and coulter injected in the center of 30” rows.

Conclusions

• It is still best to apply most of the potassium needs at planting to achieve optimum yields.

• In cases that arise where a late sidedress application is necessary, this test shows no significant yield decrease from the delayed application.

• Sidedress applications of potassium can still provide the nutrient needs, however not as effective.

Fertilizer Program Components in Corn (13-715)

Experiment Info13-715b

Planted: 5/7
Variety: DKC53-78
Population: 4
Row Spacing: 30”
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15’ x 210’
Replications: 4
Potash: Fall 2012
PPI: 5/2, 5/6
Sidedress: 6/8
Harvested: 10/15

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 7
CEC: 12.4
% OM: 3.4
Bicarb P: 17
K: 111
S: 5
% K: 2.3
% Mg: 21.4
% Ca: 75.9
%H: 0
% Na: 0.4
Zn: 1.5
Mn: 4
B: 0.7

Objective:

Evaluate the yield effects of the different AgroLiquid program components. According to a soil test for 175 bu/A corn, a fertilizer program of 180-30-60-2 Zn was developed for this fertilizer component experiment. Following this, a planter fertilizer program of 3 gal/A Pro-Germinator, 5 gal/A Sure-K and 2 qt/A Micro 500 was made. To determine the importance of a complete fertilizer program and evaluate the value of each program component, two treatments were compared to the complete program. One treatment removed the Pro-Germinator from the program where the second removed the Sure-K. All treatments were applied in-furrow with a tube that placed fertilizer in the seed trench. Treatments were also all sidedressed with 47 gal/A 28% + eNhance, 30 days after planting. Treatment yields appear in the following chart.

Conclusions:

• All treatments including the nitrogen only, exceeded the 175 bu/A yield goal. The location of this experiment is a highly productive soil, and has historically produced high yielding corn and soybeans.

• The fertilizer program containing only Sure-K and Micro 500 yielded about 200 bu/A, 5 bu/A higher than the nitrogen only.

• The treatment with Pro-Germinator and Micro 500 increased corn yield nearly 15 bu/A over the nitrogen only treatment.

• Highest yield was achieved with the complete fertilizer program with a yield of over 213 bu/A. This verifies the importance of each fertilizer program component. In order to achieve top corn yield, all nutrients must be added to the program at the proper rates.

AgroLiquid Program vs Conventional for Corn (Year 3)

Experiment Info

AgroLiquid Conventional Corn Year 3 2014Planted: 5/7
Variety: DKC53-78
Population: 4
Row Spacing: 30”
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15’ x 210’
Replications: 4
Potash: Fall 2012
PPI: 5/2, 5/6
Sidedress: 6/8
Harvested: 10/15
Yield Goal: 175bu
Target Fertilizer Rate: 175-30-60

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 7
CEC: 12.4
% OM: 3.4
Bicarb P: 17
K: 111
S: 5
% K: 2.3
% Mg: 21.4
% Ca: 75.9
%H: 0
% Na: 0.4
Zn: 1.5
Mn: 4
B: 0.7

Objective

Evaluate effects of the same fertilizer programs in the same plots in a long-term corn-soybean rotation
on corn yield.

AgroLiquid crop nutrition programs are based upon usable plant nutrition, and not just total pounds of nutrients applied. Due to enhanced fertilizer usability, AgroLiquid application rates are much lower than those of conventional fertilizers. The ability to produce comparable yields has been well documented, but there is always concern on the sustainability of AgroLiquid programs over time. Previous research at the NCRS showed yield and soil test sustainability over a ten year test where the same programs were run in the same plots in a corn-soybean rotation. This experiment is set up to test the same fertilizer programs applied in the same plots in a corn-soybean rotation. 2013 marked the third year of a proposed ten year duration. This will enable evaluation of sustainability. Two conventional programs, one total dry and one liquid with potash were compared to an AgroLiquid program. The conventional programs applied a 180-30-60 for N-P2O5-K2O. (Although 120 lb/A of K2O is applied to last 2 years, as explained in table below.) The AgroLiquid treatment applied only 145-8.5-3.8 of N-P2O5-K2O for comparison. Additionally, a low-rate conventional treatment that nearly matched the AgroLiquid treatment for nutrients applied was also included for comparison. The yields for the three years thus far appear in the table below.

Conclusions

• Highest yielding treatment each year was with AgroLiquid which applied less than half of the total nutrients per acre compared to the conventional treatments.

• The low-rate conventional also produced exceptionally high yields for the amount of nutrients applied. But this yield was substantially lower than that with AgroLiquid, even though nutrient application rate was the same.

• The low-rate conventional treatment actually yielded higher than the full-rate conventional treatments in 2012. But in 2013, the yield was much lower suggesting that this rate is not sustainable.

Long-Term Fertilizer Program Comparisons in Corn (13-715)

Experiment Info

13-715Planted: 5/7
Variety: DKC53-78
Population: 4
Row Spacing: 30”
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15’ x 210’
Replications: 4
Potash: Fall 2012
PPI: 5/2, 5/6
Sidedress: 6/8
Harvested: 10/15
Yield Goal: 175 bu
Target Fertilizer Rate: 175-30-60

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 7
CEC: 12.4
% OM: 3.4
Bicarb P: 17
K: 111
S: 5
% K: 2.3
% Mg: 21.4
% Ca: 75.9
%H: 0
% Na: 0.4
Zn: 1.5
Mn: 4
B: 0.7

Objective

Compare effects of an AgroLiquid corn fertilizer program that applies less than half the amount of nutrients per acre to two conventional fertilizer programs.AgroLiquid fertilizers are touted as having nutrient formulations that are more efficient and longer lasting in the soil than are comparable conventional fertilizers. Such enhancements enable application of nutrients at reduced rates since said nutrients are not lost or made unavailable to the crop. Three different corn fertilizer programs were developed based on soil test and applied to plots in an experiment that keeps the same fertilizer programs in the same plots in a corn-soybean rotation. The conventional treatments applied a program of 180-30-120 compared to 147-8.5-3.8 for AgroLiquid. (Note: the conventional treatments had 200 lb/A of potash applied in the previous fall after soybean harvest. This is a common practice in the area and is to provide K to the corn and following soybean crops.) This is the third year of this experiment, and the yields from 2013 are in the chart.

Conclusions

• All of the treatments increased yield over that of the nitrogen only treatment. This was the reduced rate of nitrogen used in the AgroLiquid treatment, applying 141 lb of N per acre.

• The AgroLiquid treatment produced the highest average yield compared the two conventional treatments that applied over twice the amount of nutrients per acre.

• In addition to higher yield, the in-furrow AgroLiquid treatment is easier to apply.

In-Furrow Planter Fertilizer Source Comparisons in Dryland Corn (13-711)

Experiment Info

13-711Planted: 5/3
Variety: DKC53-78
Population: 34,000
Row Spacing: 30”
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15’ x 255’
Replications: 4
Sidedress: 6/15
Harvested: 10/22
Yield Goal: 175 bu
Target Fertilizer Rate: 192-50-91

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 7.3
CEC: 18.9
% OM: 4.3
Bicarb P: 16
K: 110
S: 13
% K: 1.5
% Mg: 19.4
% Ca: 78.7
%H: 0
% Na: 0.4
Zn: 1.2
Mn: 3
B: 0.7

Objective

To compare planter applied fertilizer source effects on corn yield.Each year more in-furrow fertilizer options are available, many of these are balanced products containing N, P, K and in some cases micronutrients. Carefully planned recommendations need to be conducted when comparing AgroLiquid products to these products. In order to make fair comparisons, use of the full AgroLiquid line should be utilized. This experiment compared four products: Trupointe, Season Pass (6-18-6), Nachurs G24 (6-24-6) and 3-20-15 to a combination of Pro-Germinator and Sure-K. All products were applied at 5 gal/A with in-furrow tubes. Due to the low soil test potassium levels, 7 gal/A Sure-K was applied sidedress with 45 gal/A High NRG-N to all treatments. Yield results appear on the chart below.

Conclusions

• Better yield was obtained with the Pro-Germinator and Sure-K treatment, similar yield was achieved with all other in-furrow fertilizer products.

• One of AgroLiquid’s biggest advantages is the provision of a program to meet soil test needs and address almost every nutrient to help attain highest yield. Using a combination of Pro-Germinator and Sure-K can help, AgroLiquid Nutrition compare to these other inflexible products.

• Highest yield at 192 bu/A was reached with 2.5 gal/A Pro-Germinator and 2.5 gal/A Sure-K.

Broadcast Nitrogen Source Comparisons in Corn (13-710)

Experiment Info

13-710Planted: 5/3
Variety: DKC53-78
Population: 37,000
Row Spacing: 30”
Previous Crop: Soybeans
Plot Size: 15’ x 255’
Replications: 4
PRE: 5/4
Urea: 5/7
Harvested: 10/23
Yield Goal: 175 bu
Target Fertilizer Rate: 192-70-70

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 6.5
CEC: 14.2
% OM: 2.5
Bray P1: 14
K: 109
S: 11
% K: 2.0
% Mg: 18.5
% Ca: 71.4
%H: 7.6
% Na: 0.5
Zn: 1.0
Mn: 4
B: 0.4

Objective

To evaluate the effectiveness of different nitrogen sources applied broadcast on corn. This experiment compared pre emergence broadcast applications of different nitrogen solutions in a corn crop. Applications were made the day following planting. All sources were applied at the recommended rate to provide 192 lbs of equivalent nitrogen per acre for a yield goal on 175 bu/A. AgroLiquid products were High NRG-N, 28% + eNhance, 28% + accesS, a combination of High NRG-N and 28% + eNhance and an experimental product NF-13. These products were compared to conventional products 28% and ESN urea. Yields appear on the chart above.

Conclusions

• All nitrogen solutions nearly reached the yield goal and greatly increased yield over the no nitrogen treatment.

• Highest yield was achieved with the full rate of 28% with the addition of eNhance, yielding 193 bu/A which was significantly higher than the same rate of 28% UAN without eNhance.

• The addition of 6 gal of access to 28% added 5 bu /A to the overall yield.

• Nitrogen sources that applied less actual nitrogen per acre, reached yield goal, but were not able to provide additional yield than the higher nitrogen rates.

Potassium Fertilizer Timing in Corn (13-705)

Experiment Info

13-705Planted: 5/7
Variety: DKC53-78
Population: 31,500
Row Spacing: 30”
Previous Crop: Corn
Plot Size: 15’ x 265’
Replications: 4
Potash: 11/9/12
PRE: 5/8
Sidedress: 6/8
Harvested: 10/15
Yield Goal: 175 bu
Target Fertilizer Rate: 192-90-48

Soil Test Values (ppm)

pH: 6.9
CEC: 9.5
% OM: 2.1
Bray P1: 10
K: 112
S: 7
% K: 3.0
% Mg: 19.5
% Ca: 77.2
% H: 0
% Na: 0.3
Zn: 1.5
Mn: 10
B: 0.5

Objective

To determine the optimum time for fertilizing a corn crop with potassium. Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizer’s Sure-K is seed safe to allow application of the required nutrients in-furrow when planting. Sometimes the question of when to apply potassium, if not with the planter, comes up. In determining to answer that question, a broadcast rate of Sure-K was applied in the fall. A comparison of fall broadcasted Potash was also applied. Both treatments were incorporated into the soil by chisel plowing the previous corn crop residue. The spring broadcast treatment of Sure-K was made and incorporated with a soil finisher before planting. Yield results appear in the table above.

Conclusions

• The 4 gal/A rate of Sure-K gave nearly identical yields as the higher rate of Sure-K broadcasted or the dry Potash applications. The in-furrow placement puts nutrients where they are needed.

• Planter applied, fall or spring broadcast of potassium had no significant yield advantage to each other. The difference comes in the amount of nutrients applied to realize similar yields.

• In spite of these results, broadcast applications are not recommended at this time until more research is conducted.

• The no planter fertilizer treatment lacked the necessary nutrients needed to accomplish its yield potential.

• If Sure-K is going to be broadcast applied, a 20% increase in rate is needed to achieve comparable yields to planter applied rates.